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Citation Guides: Citation - APA

APA Format Guide

MODEL NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES
APA Publication Manual, 6th ed.
Adapted with permission from the University of Maryland University College Library, 2015.

General Rules

Reference List Format Examples

 

Taking Notes for your Research Paper

 

To format your References list:

  • Center the word References at the top
  • Use 12 point font
  • Use 1” margins
  • Double space all entries (without an extra space between entries)
  • Indent the second and all subsequent lines for each entry
  • Alphabetize entries by last name (or title, if there is no author)
  • All entries, except those with a link or DOI, end with a period
  • Remove any active hyperlinks
  • Only include sources you have cited in the paper
  • When citing an article accessed online, use a stable URL whenever possible.  You may also use a DOI, if the URL is unavailable.  URLs should never be hyperlinked and the format for either a URL or DOI is: Retrieved from http://

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For in-text notes:

 

What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work

(Smith, 2004)

A specific page

(Smith, 2004, p. 39)

If the author’s name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Smith (2004, p. 39) claims that…

Use only the date or date and page.

An online article with no page numbers

(Myers, 2000, para. 5)

(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

Use abbreviation “para.” Followed by the paragraph number. When possible, specify a section of the article.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors below.

 

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Authors:

 

# of authors

Reference List Citation

In-Text Citation

1

Courtois, C. A. (2004).

(Courtois, 2004)

2

Kelley, P. C., & Chang, P. L. (2007).

(Kelley & Chang, 2007)

3-5

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004).

(Hughes, Brestan, & Valle, 2004)

When a work has more than 2 authors, subsequent in-text citations consist of the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”) and the date.

6 or more

 

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., & Asgaard, G. (2004). 

(Hughes et al., 2004)

When a work has 6 or more authors, subsequent in-text citations consist of the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”) and the date.

8 or more

 

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004). 

When a work has 8 or more authors, the format for the References list is: include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last author's name.

 

(Gilbert et al., 2004) 

Group author

American Dietetic Association. (1999).

First citation:

(American Dietetic Association [ADA], 1999)

Subsequent citations:

(ADA, 1999)

No authors listed

None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 12). New York Times, pp. 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

(“None to Claim Their Bones,” 1888)

When the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in your in-text citation.

 

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Special Cases

  • When citing a source without an individual author, you may use a corporate author.  When there is no author at all, begin your citation with the item's title.
  • When citing an online source that is not static (like a published article) and may change (like a webpage), include an access date.  Example: Retrieved April 10, 2018, from http://www.cdc.gov
  • When citing a source without a date, use (n.d.).

 

Academic Journals:

Print

Last name, Initials, Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume #(issue #), page range.

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 1-16.

Website

Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume #(issue #), page range. Retrieved from URL

Giancola, P. R. (2004). Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression. American Psychologist, 59(2), 5-7. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/journals/emp/

Library Database

Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume #(issue #), page range. Retrieved from URL or name of database.

Reitzes, D. C., & Mutran, E. J. (2004). The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment.International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59(1), 63-84. Retrieved from http://www.baywood.com/journals/PreviewJournals.asp?Id=0091-4150

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Magazines:

Print

Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume #(issue #), page range.

Borowitz, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov's brother. New Yorker, 80(35), 63-66.

Website

Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume #(issue #), page range. Retrieved from URL

Springen, K. (2005, January 17). Artful aging. Newsweek, 145(3), 25-27. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/

Library Database

Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume #(issue #), page range. Retrieved from URL or name of database.

Borowitz, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov's brother. New Yorker, 80(35), 63-66. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/

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Newspapers:

Print

Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. page numbers.

Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. The New York Times, pp. 1, 5.

Website

Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Article title. Newspaper Title​. Retrieved from URL

Foreman, J. (2003, August 12). Allston gothic. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/

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Encyclopedia Articles:

Print

Last name, Initials. (entry date). Entry title. In Editor's Name (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (edition).

Smith, A. J. (2001). Child development. In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology (11th ed.).

Online or Library Database

Last name, Initials. (entry date). Entry title. In Editor's Name (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (edition).

Smith, A. J. (2001). Child development. In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/

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 Book and Film Reviews:

Website

Reviewer's Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Title of review [Review of the book Book title, by Author's Initial Author's last name]. Title of Journal or Newspaper. Retrieved from URL

Cohen, P. (2007, May 9). Love, honor, cherish, and buy [Review of the book One perfect day: The selling of the American wedding, by R. Mead]. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/09/books/09bride.html

Library Database

Reviewer's Last name, Initials. (Publication date). Title of review [Review of the book Book title, by Author's Initial Author's last name]. Title of Journal or Newspaper, pp. page number(s)​. Retrieved from URL

Grimes, W. (2006, December 13). Beyond Mandalay, the road to isolation and xenophobia [Review of the book The river of lost footsteps: Histories of Burma, by T. Myint-U]. New York Times, pp. E8, E10. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

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 Books:

Print

Basic book:

Author's Last name, Initial. (Publication date). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Jans, N. (1993). The last light breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Northwest Books.

Edited book:

Author's Last name, Initial (Ed.). (Publication date). Book title​. Place of publication: Publisher.

Miller, J., & Smith, T. (Eds.). (1996). Cape Cod stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.

Chapter or article in an anthology:

Author's Last name, Initial. (Publication date). Chapter Title. In Editor's Initials Editor's Last name (Ed.), Book title​ (pp. page range of chapter). Place of publication: Publisher.

Eliot, T. S. (2001). Tradition and the individual talent. In V. B. Leitch (Ed.), The Norton anthology of theory and criticism (pp. 1092-1097). New York, NY: W. W. Norton. (Original work published 1920)

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eBooks

From a Library Database:

Author's Last name, Initial. (Publication date). Book title​. Retrieved from URL

Miller, L. (2008). Careers for nature lovers & other outdoor types. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com

From an eReader:

Author's Last name, Initial. (Publication date). Book title​. [eReader type]. Retrieved from URL

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version].  Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

From a Website:

Author's Last name, Initial. (Publication date). Book title​. Retrieved from URL

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6818

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Websites:

Entire website

If you are citing a webpage that may change over time, it is recommended that you include an access date (See examples below for placement.)

If you refer to an entire Web site, you do not need to include an entry for it in your reference list, but must identify the source clearly in the text of your paper. For example:

The Sea Turtle Restoration Project homepage presents a wealth of compelling, well-researched information on the struggle to save the world's sea turtles from extinction (http://www.seaturtles.org).

Specific page within a website

With identified author:

Author's Last name, Initial. (Publication or last modified date). Title of webpage. Retrieved Date, from URL

Nafees, Q., Yilong, Y., Andras, N., Zhiming, L., & Janos, S. (2014, November 19). Anonymously analyzing clinical data sets. Retrieved April 10, 2018, from http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.05916

Corporate author:

Name of corporate author. (Publication or last modified date). Title of webpage. Retrieved Date, from URL

Sea Turtle Restoration Project. (2006). Threats to sea turtles. Retrieved April 10, 2018,  from http://www.seaturtleinc.org/rehabilitation/threats-to-sea-turtles/

Blog post

Author's Last name, Initial. (Post date). Title of post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Rabstenek, S.B. (2018, November 2). Kickoff kit: Tools to help teams work better together [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://open.nytimes.com/kickoff-kit-tools-to-help-teams-work-better-together-3ca6a06b4fc2

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Images:

Use this format for artwork, and online images, datasets, photographs, figures, and tables.
NOTE: Images should have a descriptive caption, followed by an in-text citation.

Library Database

Creator's Last name, Initial. (Date or work). Title [Type of image]. Retrieved from Database Name database.

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Retrieved from Oxford Art Online database.

Website

Creator's Last name, Initial. (Date or work). Title [Type of image]. Retireved date, from URL

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Retrieved April 10, 2018, from http://www.uwm.edu/~wash/rousseau.jpg

Image reproduced in a printed source

Creator's Last name, Initial. (Date or work). Title [Type of image]. Book title. By Author's Initial Last name. Place of publication: Publisher, page number. 

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By C. Fresches et al. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art. 232.

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Videos:

DVD

Director's Last name, Initial. (Director). (Release date). Film title [format]. Place of production: Production Company.

Hitchcock, A. (Director). (1954). Dial M for murder [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers Pictures.

Streaming video

Director or Creator's Last name, Initial. (Release date). Film title [format]. Retrieved from URL

Heffernan, M. (2015, May). Margaret Heffernan: Why it's time to forget the pecking order at work [video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/margaret_heffernan_why_it_s_time_to_forget_the_pecking_order_at_work

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Interviews and other personal communication:

APA does not require that you cite personal communications (interviews you've conducted, e-mail messages, etc.) in your reference list. Instead, give an in-text citation only using the following model.

Joe Smith (personal communication, November 18, 2006) informed me that the server had crashed several hours ago.

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Theses and Dissertations

Author's Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of thesis or dissertation (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Retrieved from URL

Adams, R.J. (1973). Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd

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Class Handouts:

Instructor's last name, Initial(s). (Year handout was given to you). Title of handout: Subtitle, if any. [Class handout]. City, State: School.

Fineberg, T. (2019). Source evaluation worksheet. [Class handout]. New York, NY: The Dalton School.

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Class Digital Presentations:

Instructor's last name, Initial(s). (Year created or presented). Title of presentation: Subtitle, if any. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from URL.

Fineberg, T. (2019). Science research: Fall 2019. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://dalton.myschoolapp.com/ftpimages/98/download/download_2992689.pdf

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--Revised October, 2019

Citation Tools

You can organize your resources and format citations with NoodleTools. Remember to always check the format with the Citation Guide for accuracy!  

You may easily access your Dalton NoodleTools account from your Dalton GDrive.

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