Skip to main content

Citation Guides: Citation - Chicago

 MODEL FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES
Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.

For each type of source, a model footnote appears first, followed by a model bibliography entry. 

The model footnote shows the format you should use when citing a source for the first time. For subsequent citations of a source, see General Rules below.

For more detailed information and other types of sources not listed here, see the print copy of Chicago Manual of Style in the library or schedule a lab with your librarian.


GENERAL RULES

​BOOKS (Print and Electronic)

ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS (Print and Online)

WEBSITES and BLOG ENTRIES

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

AUDIO/VISUAL

ARCHIVAL MATERIALS

THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

INTERVIEWS

SPECIAL CASES

 

HOW TO FORMAT YOUR BIBLIOGRAPHY:

  • Center the word Bibliography at the top

  • Use 12 point font

  • Use 1” margins

  • Leave two blank lines between the heading "Bibliography" and your first entry.

  • Single space all entries with an extra line between entries.

  • Each entry begins at the left margin with subsequent lines indented.

  • Alphabetize entries by author's last name (or title, if there is no author.)

  • Always use publication dates instead of access dates, unless requested by your teacher.  If used, accessed dates are placed after the publication information, but before the URL.  Use "Accessed on May 26, 2017" format.

  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation "n.d."

  • Remove any active hyperlinks.

(Return to Top)

AUTHORS

  • For two to three authors, write out all names. 
  • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in footnotes. 
  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title.

(Return to Top)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bellour, Raymond, "Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour." By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3-4 (Summer 1979): 89-94.
 

Choi, Mihwa. "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty." PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008.
 

Department of Asian Art. “Nature in Chinese Culture.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2004. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cnat/hd_cnat.htm.
 

Gabin, Nancy. Review of The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment, by Susan M. Hartman. Journal of Women's History 12, no. 3 (2000): 227-34. 
 

McPherson, James M. Ordeal by Fire. Vol. 2, The Civil War. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
 

The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage. London: The Men's League for Women's Suffrage, 1912.
 

Whitney, Frank P. "The Six-Year High School in Cleveland." School Review 37, no.4 (1929): 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1078814.
 

Williams, Elisha. Thomas Addis Emmet Collection. New York Public Library, http://archives.nypl.org/mss/927#c51.

(Return to Top)

HOW TO FORMAT YOUR FOOTNOTES:

  • Footnotes are sequential in number and the numbers do not repeat within your paper.
  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page where notes are inserted in the text.  
  • Footnotes are indented on the first line, with subsequent lines flush left.
  • Although footnote numbers are in superscript within the text, they are full size in the notes.


FIRST AND SUBSEQUENT FOOTNOTES:

The first time you cite a source, the note should include the full publishing information for that work as well as the page number on which the passage being cited is found.  If no page number is available, you have other options: section (sec.), paragraph (para.), or volume (vol.).

1. Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave Black Regiment (New York: St. Martin's, 1965), 85.

For subsequent references later in your paper to a source you have already cited, you may simply give the author's last name, a short form of the title (no need for the subtitle), and the page or pages cited. A book title is italicized; an article title is put in quotation marks.

5. Burchard, One Gallant Rush, 31.

Although discouraged by the Chicago Manual of Style, you may use "Ibid." (meaning "in the same place") when you have two consecutive footnotes from the same source. Use "Ibid." alone if the page number is the same, but include the page number if it differs from the first note.  **Important: If you choose to use "Ibid." it is best to use the short form footnote as you write your paper and only use "Ibid." to replace the consecutive notes when your paper is complete.  This will prevent accidental errors that might occur when you edit your paper and add a footnote that might fall between and separate a citation and its following "Ibid." 

8. Jack Hurst, Nathan Bedford Forrest: A Biography (New York: Knopf, 1993), 8.

9. Ibid., 174.

(Return to Top)



BOOKS (print and electronic)

PRINT BOOK

Footnote format:

1. First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

1. William H. Rehnquist, The Supreme Court: A History (New York: Knopf, 2001), 204.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court: A History. New York: Knopf, 2001.

(Return to Top)

DOWNLOADED EBOOKS
Include the format (PDF, EPUB) and/or device (Kindle, Nook) at the end of the citation.  To cite location within the book, use chapter or section headings unless original page numbers can be found in a print edition and correspond.

Footnote format:

2. First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), chapter or section heading, format or device.

2. Adam Begley, Updike (New York: Harper, 2014), chap. 2, iBooks.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date. Format or device.

Borel, Brooke. Infested: How the Bed Bug Infiltrated Our Bedrooms and Took Over the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015. Adobe Digital Editions EPUB.

(Return to Top)

EBOOKS ONLINE
For books consulted online, include a DOI or, if accessed through a library database use a URL that brings you to the source info. If the URL brings an outside reader to a login page, include the database name instead. To cite location within the book, use chapter or section headings unless original page numbers can be found in a print edition that correspond.

Footnote format:

3. First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), chapter or section heading, DOI/URL or database.

3. Mark Evans Bonds, Absolute Music: The History of an Idea (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), chap. 3, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date. DOI/URL or database.

Borel, Brooke. Infested: How the Bed Bug Infiltrated Our Bedrooms and Took Over the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015. EBSCOhost.

(Return to Top)

TWO OR THREE AUTHORS

4. First name Last name and First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

4. Michael D. Coe and Mark Van Stone, Reading the Maya Glyphs (London: Thames and Hudson, 2002), 130.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

Coe, Michael D., and Mark Van Stone. Reading the Maya Glyphs. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002.

(Return to Top)

UNKNOWN AUTHOR

Footnote format:

5. Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

5. The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage (London: The Men's League for Women's Suffrage, 1912), 23.

Bibliography format:

Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage. London: The Men's League for Women's Suffrage, 1912.

(Return to Top)

EDITED WORK WITHOUT AN AUTHOR

Footnote format:

6. First name Last name, ed., Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

6. Jack Beatty, ed., Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), 127.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name, ed. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

Beatty, Jack, ed. Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America. NewYork: Broadway Books, 2001.

(Return to Top)

EDITED WORK WITH AN AUTHOR

Footnote format:

7. Author's First name Last name, Title, ed. Editor's First name Last name (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

7. Ted Poston, A First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen A. Hauke (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 46.

Bibliography format:

Author's Last name, First name. Title. Edited by Editor's First name Last name. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

Poston, Ted. A First Draft of History. Edited by Kathleen A. Hauke. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

(Return to Top)

TRANSLATED WORK

Footnote format:

8. Author's First name Last name, Title, trans. Translator's First name Last name (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

8. Tonino Guerra, Abandoned Places, trans. Adria Bernardi (Barcelona: Guernica, 1999), 71.

Bibliography format:

Author's Last name First name. Title. Translated by Translator's First name Last name. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

Guerra, Tonino. Abandoned Places. Translated by Adria Bernardi. Barcelona: Guernica, 1999.

(Return to Top)

VOLUME IN A MULTI-VOLUME WORK

Footnote format:

9. First name Last name, Volume Title, vol. #, Title of Multi-volume Work (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

9. James M. McPherson, Ordeal by Fire, vol. 2, The Civil War (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 205.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. Volume Title. Vol. #, Title of Multi-volume Work. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

McPherson, James M. Ordeal by Fire. Vol. 2, The Civil War. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

(Return to Top)

CHAPTER IN A BOOK

Footnote format:

10. Chapter author's First name Last name, “Chapter Title,” in Book Title, ed. editor's First name Last name (Place of publication: Publisher, publication date), page.

10. Glenn Gould, “Streisand as Schwarzkopf,” in The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (New York: Vintage, 1984), 310.

Bibliography format:

Chapter author's Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by editor's First name Last name, page range of chapter. Place of publication: Publisher, publication date.

Gould, Glenn. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage, 1984.

(Return to Top)

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE IN PRINT
Note: Well-known general reference works (ex. Encyclopaedia Britannica) are usually cited only in notes and not included in bibliographies.  Special encyclopedias (ex. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) are included in bibliographies.

Footnote format:

11. Encyclopedia Title, #th ed., s.v. "Entry Title."

11. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "Monroe Doctrine."

NOTE: The abbreviation “s.v.” is for the Latin "sub vero" (under the word). This is used because you are citing the entry title, not a page number.

(Return to Top)

ONLINE ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

Footnote format:

12. Encyclopedia Title, s.v. “Entry Title,” accessed date, URL.

12. Britannica Online, s.v. “Monroe Doctrine,” accessed March 3, 2010, http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9053434.

Bibliography format:

Entry author's Last name, First name. "Entry Title." In Special Encyclopedia TitlePublisher, publication date. URL.

Middleton, Richard. "Lennon, John Ono (1940-1980)." In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/31351.

(Return to Top)

 

ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS (print and online)

**Important: In the examples below, the first # represents the volume number (do not include the word "vol.") and the second # represents the issue (include the word "no.".)  If there is no issue number, include a more complete date (e.g., January 2012 or Summer 1998.)  Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given. 

JOURNAL ARTICLE IN PRINT

Footnote format:

13. First name Last name, "Article Title," Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page.  

13. Jonathan Zimmerman, "EthniPlace and the History Wars in the 1920s," Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 101.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page range of article.

Zimmerman, Jonathan. "EthniPlace and the History Wars in the 1920s." Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 92-111.

(Return to Top)

JOURNAL ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE
For an article accessed through a database service such as JSTOR or Project Muse, or for an article published online, include a DOI or stable URL. Always look for the PDF which shows the page numbers.  For un-paginated articles where page references are not possible, you may use section (sec.) or paragraph (para.). 

Footnote format:

14. First name Last name, “Article Title," Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page, URL.

14. Frank P. Whitney, “The Six-Year High School in Cleveland," School Review 37, no.4 (1929): 268, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1078814.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page range of article. URL.

Whitney, Frank P. "The Six-Year High School in Cleveland." School Review 37, no.4 (1929): 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1078814.

(Return to Top)

JOURNAL ARTICLE PUBLISHED ONLINE

Footnote format:

15. First name Last name and First name Last name, “Article Title," Journal Title volume #, issue # (date): page, DOI.

15. Boyan Jovanovic and Peter L. Rousseau, “Specific Capital and Technological Variety,” Journal of Human Capital 2, no.2 (Summer 2008): 135, doi:10.1086/590066.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name and First name Last name. "Article Title." Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page range of article. DOI.

Jovanovic, Boyan and Peter L. Rousseau. "Specific Capital and Technological Variety.” Journal of Human Capital 2, no.2 (Summer 2008): 129-52. doi:10.1086/590066.

(Return to Top)

MAGAZINE ARTICLE IN PRINT

Footnote format:

16. First name Last name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, publication date, page.

16. Joy Williams, "One Acre," Harper's, February 2001, 62.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, publication date, page range of article.

Williams, Joy. "One Acre." Harper's, February 2001, 58-65.

(Return to Top)

MAGAZINE ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE or PUBLISHED ONLINE

For an article accessed through a database service such as EBSCOhost or for an article published online, include a DOI/URL or name the database.

Footnote format:

17. First name Last name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, publication date, page, DOI/URL or database.

17. David Pryce-Jones, "The Great Sorting Out: Postwar Iraq," National Review, May 5, 2003, 17, EBSCOhost.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." MagazineTitle, publication date, page range of article. DOI/URL or database.

Pryce-Jones, David. "The Great Sorting Out: Postwar Iraq." National Review, May 5, 2003, 17-18. http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org.

(Return to Top)

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE IN PRINT

For newspaper articles - whether in print or online - page numbers are not necessary. A section letter or number, if available, is sufficient.

Footnote format:

18. First name Last name, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, publication date, section.

18. Dan Barry, "A Mill Closes, and a Hamlet Fades to Black," New York Times, February 16, 2001, sec. A.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, publication date, section.

Barry, Dan. "A Mill Closes, and a Hamlet Fades to Black." New York Times, February 16, 2001, sec. A.

(Return to Top)

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE OR PUBLISHED ONLINE

For an article accessed through a database such as ProQuest or published online, include a URL.  Because news sites may update certain stories as they unfold, it may be appropriate to include a time stamp for an article that includes one.

Footnote format:

19. First name Last name, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, publication date, URL.

19. Gina Kolata, "Scientists Debating Future of Hormone Replacement," New York Times, October 23, 2002, http://www.proquest.com.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, publication date. URL.

Willon, Phil. "Ready or Not." Los Angeles Times, December 2, 2001. http://www.latimes.com/news/la-foster-special.special.

(Return to Top)

UNSIGNED ARTICLE

When the author of a periodical article is unknown, the footnote begins with the article title, and the name of the newspaper stands in place of the author in the bibliography.

Footnote format:

20. "Article Title," Newspaper Title, publication date, section.

20. "Renewable Energy Rules," Boston Globe, August 11, 2003, sec. A.

Bibliography format:

Newspaper Title. "Article Title." Publication date, section.

Boston Globe. "Renewable Energy Rules." August 11, 2003, sec. A.

(Return to Top)

BOOK REVIEW

Footnote format:

21. Reviewer's First name Last name, review of Title of item reviewed, by Author's First name Last name, Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page.

21. Nancy Gabin, review of The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment, by Susan M. Hartman, Journal of Women's History 12, no. 3 (2000): 230.

Bibliography format:

Reviewer's Last name, First name. Review of Title of item reviewed, by Author's First name Last name. Journal Title volume #, issue # (publication date): page range of review.

Gabin, Nancy. Review of The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment, by Susan M. Hartman. Journal of Women's History 12, no. 3 (2000): 227-34. 

(Return to Top)

WEBSITES

WEBSITES

Include as much of the following information as is available: author, title of the webpage, sponsor of the site, and the site's URL. When no author is named, treat the sponsor as the author. Also include a publication date or date of revision; if no such date can be determined, include an access date.

Footnote format:

22. First name Last name, “Title of web page,” Publishing organization or Name of website, publication or last modified date, URL.

22. Department of Asian Art, "Nature in Chinese Culture," The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cnat/hd_cnat.htm.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. “Title of web page.” Publishing organization or Name of Website. Publication or last modified date. URL.

Department of Asian Art. “Nature in Chinese Culture.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2004. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cnat/hd_cnat.htm.

(Return to Top)

BLOG ENTRIES
Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.

Footnote format:

23. First name Last name, “Title of blog post,” Title of Blog (blog), Title of publication if blog is part of a larger publication, date of blog post, URL.

23. Mike Nizza, “Go Ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says,” The Lede (blog), New York Times, July 15, 2008, http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. “Title of blog post.” Title of Blog (blog). Title of publication if blog is part of a larger publication. URL.

Nizza, Mike. “Go Ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says.” The Lede (blog). New York Times.
http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/.

(Return to Top)

SOCIAL MEDIA
Cite publicly available content shared via social media as shown in the following examples.  Private content, including direct messages, is considered personal communication and should be cited as such (see next entry.)  Note: Because social media content is subject to editing and deletion, keep a screenshot of anything you cite.  URLs for individual posts or comments can often be found via the date stamp.

Footnote format:

24. First name Last name of post author, "Text of post (quote as much as the first 160 characters, capitalized as in the original)," Name of social media platform, date, URL.

24. Junot Diaz, "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume," Facebook, February 24, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name of post author. "Text of post." Name of social media platform, Date. URL.

Diaz, Junot. "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume." Facebook, February 24, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

(Return to Top)

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Conversations (whether face-to-face, telephone, letters, email, text messages, or messages shared through social media) are cited with footnotes.  They are rarely listed in a bibliography.  Never include personal email or other addresses.  For correspondence housed in archival collections, see Archival Materials below.

Footnote format:

25. First name Last name of correspondent, type of communication, date.

25. Ellen Stein, email message to author, April 23, 2017.

(Return to Top)

AUDIO / VISUAL

Audio/Visual materials are usually listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are grouped under an appropriate subhead.


VIDEO OR DVD

Footnote format:

26. Title of Work, directed/performed by First name Last name (original release date; Place of publication: Studio/Distributor, video release date), medium.

26. The Secret of Roan Inish, directed by John Sayles (1993; Culver Place, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2000), DVD.

Bibliography format:

Title of Work. Directed by First name Last name. Original release date. Place of publication: Studio/Distributor, video release date. Medium.

The Secret of Roan Inish. Directed by John Sayles. 1993. Culver Place, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2000. DVD.

(Return to Top)

TV EPISODE OR VIDEO CLIP ONLINE

Footnote format:

26. Title of Work, episode #, "Episode Title," directed/performed by First name Last name, aired Date, on Station or Webpage Name, URL. 

26. American Crime Story: The People v. O.J. Simpson, episode 6, "Marcia, Marcia, Marcia," directed by Ryan Murphy, written by D.V. DeVincentis, featuring Sterling K. Brown, Kenneth Choi, and Sarah Paulson, aired March 8, 2016, on FX, https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01ARVPCOA/.

Bibliography format:

Director's Last name, First name, dir. Title of Show. Season #, episode #, "Title of Episode." Aired date, on Station Name. URL.

Mayberry, Russ, dir. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, "Her Sister's Shadow." Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC. https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

 

(Return to Top)

SOUND RECORDING

Footnote format:

27. Composer's First name Last name, Title of Work, with Soloist (instrument) and the Name of Orchestra, conducted by First name Last name, recorded date, Studio and recording number, release date, medium.

27. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violincello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

Bibliography format:

Composer's Last name First name. Title of Work. With soloist's First name Last name (instrument) and the Name of Orchestra. Conducted by First name Last name. Recorded date. Studio and recording number, release date, medium.

Strauss, Richard. Don Quixote. With Emanuel Feuermann (violincello) and the PhiladelphiaOrchestra. Conducted by Eugene Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1940. Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

(Return to Top)

IMAGES

28. Artist's First name Last name, Title of Work, Date of work, medium, location of work.

28. Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl, December 1984, photograph, National Geographic, cover, June 1985.

Bibliography format:

Artist's Last name First name. Title of Work. Date of work. Medium. Location of work.

McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December 1984. Photograph. National Geographic, cover, June 1985.

ARCHIVAL MATERIALS

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS OR ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS

Footnote format:

29. Title of item (vol.#, date), Collection title, Archives or Repository, Place where located, URL (if you are citing a digitized source you accessed online.)

29. Revere's Waste and Memoranda Book (vol.1, 1761-83), Revere Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.

Bibliography format:

Collection title. Archives or Repository, Place where located. URL (if you are citing a digitized source you accessed online.)

Revere Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.

(Return to Top)

CORRESPONDENCE

Footnote format:

30. Author's First name Last name to Recipient's First name Last name, date of correspondence, Collection title, Archives or Repository, (if you are citing a digitized source you accessed online.)

30. Elisha Williams to the President of Yale College Rev. Thomas Clap, 26 May 1750, Thomas Addis Emmet Collection, New York Public Library, http://archives.nypl.org/mss/927#c51.

Bibliography format:

Subject's Last name, First name. Papers. Archives or Repository, URL (if you are citing a digitized source you accessed online.)

Williams, Elisha. Thomas Addis Emmet Collection. New York Public Library, http://archives.nypl.org/mss/927#c51.

(Return to Top)

THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

Footnote format:

31. First name Last name, "Title of thesis or dissertation" (type, Institution name, date), page, URL.

31. Ilya Vedrashko, "Advertising in Computer Games" (master's thesis, MIT, 2006), 59, http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/IlyaVedrashko2006.pdf.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name. "Title." PhD diss., institution name, date. URL or database name.

Choi, Mihwa. "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty." PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest.

(Return to Top)

INTERVIEWS

UNPUBLISHED INTERVIEWS (by self or others)
Unpublished interviews are best cited in footnotes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies.  Check with your teacher to see if you should include it in your bibliography.  If so, use the Published Interview bibliography below, including as much information as you have.

Footnote format:

32. First name Last name of person interviewed, brief identifying information if appropriate, interviewer, place and/or date of interview, transcript location, if available.  (Two examples appear below: personal interview by author and interview with transcript.

32. Ellen Stein (Head of School, The Dalton School), interview by Tobi Fineberg, New York City, November 20, 2015.

32. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J.E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

(Return to Top)

PUBLISHED or BROADCAST INTERVIEWS

Footnote format:

33. First name Last name of person interviewed, interview by First name Last name of interviewer, Publication, media format if applicable, date, URL.

33. Darcey Steinke, interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, April 22, 2007, http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3.

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name of person interviewed. "Title." By First name Last name of interviewer. Publication, volume or issue numbers if applicable (date): page range.

Bellour, Raymond, "Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour." By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3-4 (Summer 1979): 89-94.

(Return to Top)

SPECIAL CASES

SOURCE WITHIN A SECONDARY SOURCE

Footnote format:

34. First name Last name of author of original source, "Title of original source," Original Journal Titl#, issue # (publication date): page, quoted in First name Last name of secondary author, Title of secondary source (place of publication: Publisher, date), page.

34. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

Bibliography format:

Your bibliography entry will be for the secondary source in its regular format.

(Return to Top)

LECTURES, SPEECHES, PRESENTATIONS

For citing lectures, papers presented at meetings, and other similar presentations, follow the format below. When these presentations are published, they should be treated like a chapter in a book or an article in a journal.

Footnote format:

35. First name Last name of presenter, "Title of Presentation" (type of presentation, Title of conference or event, Location of conference or event, date).

35. Paul Hanstedt, “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom” (presentation, Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 11-14, 2009).

Bibliography format:

Last name, First name of presenter. "Title of Presentation." Type of presentation at Title of conference or event, Location, Date.

Hanstedt, Paul. “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom.” Presentation at the Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 11-14, 2009.

(Return to Top)

 

- Some selections from The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition and 

Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age, Fourth Edition, by Diana Hacker

Revised, February 2019

Citation Tools

You can organize your resources and format citations with NoodleTools. Remember to always check the format with the Citation Guide for accuracy!  

You may easily access your Dalton NoodleTools account from your Dalton GDrive.

Style Guides in the Library